Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist, invented dynamite and other explosives,
and exploited his huge wealth and his 355 patents to establish the Nobel Prize.
About Alfred Nobel
Alfred Bernard Nobel was born on 21 December 1833 in Stockholm-Sweden, the fourth son of his parents, and Caroline Nobel.
Although he was always sick in his childhood, he was full of vitality and curiosity, a seasoned engineer and a longtime inventor.
His father struggled hard to establish gainful employment in Sweden, and when Nobel was four,
his father moved to the city of St. Petersburg-Russia to manufacture explosives and was followed by other members of his family in 1842.
After his parents became wealthy, they sent him to a private school in Russia, where he quickly became a chemist,
and was free in English, French, German and Russian, as well as his Swedish native language.
Achievements of Alfred Nobel
Alfred left Russia at the age of 18, moved to the United States of America after being a chemist of Nikolai Zinin in Paris for a year,
and then returned to Russia five years later to make military equipment in his father’s factory for the Cimean war.
The company went bankrupt by the end of the war, and the family returned to Sweden,
where it showed great interest in studying explosives and was obsessing with experimenting with a highly explosive nitroglycerine substance.
In 1964, when Alfred was at the age of 29, a tragic accident occurred during the manufacture of nitroglycerine,
where a huge explosion in the family factory in Sweden killed five people, including Emil Alfred’s younger brother.
Alfred placed great emphasis on the development of a new type of safe-use explosive affected by his brother’s death,
and as a result of his constant experiments he found that the use of nitroglycerine became easier and safer after mixing it with absorbent and inert material,
and had patented 1867 for the dynamite that he used Extensively in the mines,
where the first explosive substance was the safest, easiest to use and stronger than gunpowder.
Patent in 1876
Alfred followed his experiments on the nitroglycerine material and blended it with a alnitrosililoz substance with a transparent gel texture called gelignite
and obtained a patent for its manufacture in 1876,
this material was stronger and more stable than dynamite and more suited to the work of mines, and it was reaping Huge profits.
He also made a smoke-free propellant from the Alnitrosililoz and Nitroglycyrene,
plus 10% of Eucalyptus and he named it Ballistite and was patented in 1887.
While Alfred was in France in 1888, his brother Ludwig died, where a French newspaper gave Alfred’s obituary instead of Ludwig by mistake,
titled “The Death of the Merchant of Death” and denounced Alfred’s invention of dynamite.
Also He was prompted by that incident and the great disappointment that he realized that history would be immortalized
as an inventor of a destructive material to devote part of his property to the foundation of the Nobel Prize to honor eminent personalities
who made great achievements in the field of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace workers.
Death of Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel died after a heart attack on 10 October in 1896 in San Remo, Italy,
after recommending an amount of 31225 Swedish kroner (equivalent to $250 million in 2008) to fund the Nobel Prize.